500+ Chelation Studies

By some estimates, PubMed is listing only less than 1/3 of medical studies ever published. Important papers that are deemed to be 'too old' and others that were published in a foreign language (Russian, Korean, etc.) are simply neglected.

Are you surprised?

Over 500 scientific studies are listed here, all supporting EDTA chelation, courtesy of the American College of the Advancement of Medicine and Dr. Gordon's efforts.

507 References Supporting EDTA

And this is just a small sampling!

1. Toyota H, Shibata S (Kyoto University). Supplementary studies on pharmacology of disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA salt). Nippon Yakuriguku Zasshi. 1956;52:1-9. (CA51:11567e)

2. Uhl HSM, Brown HH, Zlatkis A, Zak, B, Myers GB, Boyle AJ. Effect of ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDT) on cholesterol metabolism in man. Preliminary report of effect of parenteral and oral administration of disodium and calcium salts. Am J Clin Pathol. 1953; 23:1226-1233. (CA48:2257d)

3. Vasil'eva OG. (Inst Ind Hyg Occup Dis, Acad Med Sci, USSR) Side effects of CaNa2 ethylene-diaminetetraacetate in experimental lead intoxication. Gigiena 1 Sanitariya. 1961;26:22-5 (Mar.). (979)

4. Vozar L. Complexons in food products and their effect on the metabolic processes. Prumysl potravin. 1958; 9:649-653. (CA53:8461i) [Although the di-Na salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (I) is suitable for the elimination of undesirable metals and metal-contg. enzymes, its use in the food industry cannot be recommended. Expts. with rats revealed that oral application of I causes disturbances consisting in paralysis of certain metabolic processes leading to impairment of the gray mass of the brain cortex and failure of the metabolism regulation.]

5. Vozar L. Effect of complexon III on the distribution of calcium and phosphorus in bones. Biologia. 1958; 13:695-699. (CA55:5762e)

6. Williams JD, Leigh DA. (Edgware General Hospital) Lead poisoning. Letters to the editor. British Med J. 1964; 1:1511 (June 6). (2841)

7. Williams JD, Matthews GA, Judd AW. (St. Paul's Hospital) Oral calcium disodium versenate in treatment of lead poisoning. British J Ind Med. 1962; 19-211-215 (July). (2491)

8. Windsor E, Cronheim GE (Riker Labs, Inc.). Gastrointestinal absorption of heparin and synthetic heparinoids. Nature. 1961; 190:203-204. (CA55:23818a) [Heparin Na U.S.P. and the K salt of sulfopolyglucin can be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract when given orally with an alk. salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (I). The chelation of Ca and (or) Mg ions by I may be involved.]

9. Windsor E (to Riker Laboratories). Orally active therapeutic compositions, especially polysaccharide sulfates. U.S. 3,088,868 (Cl 167-55). May 7, 1963, Appl Aug. 18, 1958. (CA59:12598d)

10. Wynn JE, Van't Riet B, Borzelleca JF (Med. Coll. of Virginia). Toxicity and pharmaco-dynamics of EGTA: oral administration to rats and comparisons with EDTA. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1970; 16(3):807-817. (CA73)

11. Yang SS. Toxicological investigations of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Dissertation. Univ. Mass. 1952:94 p.

12. Rieders F, Copeland JE (Jefferson Med Coll). Inhibition of accumulation of chronically ingested lead in rats by simultaneous feeding of edathamil calcium disodium (Na2CaEDTA). Federation Proceedings. 1956; 15:Abstract No. 1541 (Mar.). (693)

13. Schuttmann C, Schuttmann W (Inst. Of Occup Med, Berlin-Lichtenberg). The medical prevention of occupational lead poisoning by oral administration of calciumdinatrium ethylenediaminetetraacetate. Zeitschrift fur Arztliche Fortbildung. 1963; 57:1301-1307 (Dec.). (2621)

14. Shiels DO, Thomas DLG, Kearley E. Treatment of lead poisoning by edathamil calcium-disodium. AMA Arch of Ind Health. 1956; 13:489-498 (May). (1718)

15. Savicevic M, Petrovic L. Prevention of industrial lead poisoning. Vojnosanitetski Pregled. 1962; 19:531-535 (July-Aug.). (3191)

16. Salvini M (Univ. Padua). The calcium chelate of disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate in the treatment of saturnism. Folia Medica (Naples). 1955; 38:2:111-126. (1616)

17. Saruta N, Yamaguchi S. A new diagnostic method of occupational lead poisoning for group inspection. J Sci of Labour (Japan). 1957; 33:540 (July). (1855)

18. Ritter J, Dacquet J (Inst. Hyg. Rabat, Morocco). Detection and ambulatory treatment of lead poisoning by oral administration of calcium di-sodium versenate. Maroc Medical. 1961; 40:377-382 (Apr.). (2323)

19. Remy R (Inst. Physiol. Vet. Coll.). Experimental studies on lead poisoning in animals. I. Toxicology. II. Therapy and prophylaxis. Deutsche Tierurztliche Wochenschrift. 1956; 63:385-388; 405-408 (Oct. 1; 15). (692)

20. Pott R. Control of lead exposure as practiced in a lead foundry. Zentralplatt fur Arbeltsmedizin Arbeitsschutz. 1961; 11:211-214 (Sept.). (2317)

21. Pott R. Is prophylaxis of lead poisoning with EDTA possible? Archiv fur Gewerbe-pathologie Gewerbehygiene. 1959; 17:4:354-364. (2053)

22. Pettinati L, Gribaudo C, Rasetti L. Oral and intravenous versenate in the therapy of chronic lesions caused by lead. Minerva Medica. 1962; 53:2092-2097 (July). (2458)

23. Pendergrass JC. The effects of the chronic ingestion of low levels of inorganic mercury(11) and mercury(11) complexed with EDTA on the rodent neuronal cytoskeleton: possible role of these forms of environmental mercury exposure in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. Diss Abstr Int B (Avail. Univ. Microfilms Int., Order No. DA9527428. 1975; 1995:56(4). (CA)

24. Oser BL, Oser M, Spencer HC. Safety evaluation studies of calcium EDTA. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1963; 5:142-162. (CA59: 9223a)

25. Moeschlin S. The clinical picture and therapy of lead poisoning. Zeitschrift fur Unfallmedizin Berufskrankheiten 51. 1958; 2:129-149. (1936)

26. Myslak Z, Buczkowski M. The effect of calcium versenate (Ca-EDTA) on the kidney in the treatment of lead poisoning. Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej. 1961; 31:853-856. (2304) [Kidney function tests (creatinine clearance, RN) were carried out on 20 out of 120 cases of chronic Pb poisoning treated by oral administration of CaEDTA. The results showed no harmful effect of EDTA on the kidneys during treatment.]

27. Myslak Z. Treatment of chronic saturnism by oral administration of calcium versenate. Medycyna Pracy. 1960; 11:353-368. (2169)

28. Nakaue HS, Thomas JM, Reid BL. Comparison of EDTA, terephthalic acid, sodium sulfate and acetyl-salicylic acid as antibiotic potentiating agents in broiler chicks. Poultry Sci. 1967; 46:417-421. (NA38)

29. Vozar L. Relation between peroral application of complexon 3 (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt) and the activity of alkaline phosphatase of blood serum. Biologia. 1960; 15:208-211. Z Inn Med. 1959; 14:676. (CA54:25290h)

30. Thomsen MK, Jacobsen C, Skibsted L II. Mechanism of initiation of oxidation in mayonnaise enriched with fish oil as studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Eur Food Res Technol. 2000; 211(6):381-386. (CA)

31. Sidbury JB Jr., Bynum JC, Fetz LL. (US Public Health Serv.) Effect of chelating agent on urinary lead excretion. Comparison of oral and intravenous administration. Proceedings of Soc Experimental Biol and Med. 1953; 82:226-228. (1444)

32. McMahon FG. Comparison of the effect of Fe 3-specific (N, N-dihydroxyethylglycine), versenol, and calcium disodium versenate on urinary iron excretion in a patient with hemochromatosis. J Lab Clin Med. 1956; 48:589-602. (CA51:3027c)

33. McPhail AP, Patel RC, Bothwell TH, Lamparelli RD. EDTA and the absorption of iron from food. Amer J Clin Nutr. 1994; 59(3):644-648. (NA64)

34. Manville IA, Moser R. Recent developments in the care of workers exposed to lead. The effect of the calcium chelate of disodium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid on led in the blood and urine of battery workers. AMA Arch Ind Health. 1955; 12:528-538 (Nov.). (1587)

35. Heimbach J, Rieth S, Mohamedshah F, Slesinski R, Samuel-Fernando P, Sheehan T, Dickmann R, Borzelleca J. Safety assessment of iron EDTA (sodium iron (Fe3+) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid): summary of toxicological, fortification and exposure data. Food Chem Toxicol. 2000; 38(1):99-111. (CA) [A review with many refs. Iron EDTA

36. Davidsson L, Kastenmayer P, Hurrell RF. Sodium iron EDTA (NaFe(III)EDTA) as a food fortification: the effect on the absorption and retention of zinc and calcium in women. Amer J Clin Nutr. 1994; 60(2):231-237. (NA64)

37. Foreman H, Trujillo TT. Metabolism of carbon14-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in human beings. J Lab Clin Med. 1954; 43:566-571. (CA48: 8949a)

38. Foreman H. The pharmacology of some useful chelating agents. Metal Binding Med, Proc Symposium, Philadelphia 1959. 1960; 82:94. (CA54:17719e)

39. Bradley JE, Powell AM Jr. Oral calcium EDTA in lead intoxication of children. J Ped. 1954; 45:297-301 (Sept.). (2882)

40. Capellaro F, Galdo PC, Alliod R. Possibility of treating saturnism by versenate by the oral route. Minerva Medica. 1963; 54:474-477. (2508)

41. Calabrese A, Astolfi E, Mariani F. Oral treatment of lead intoxication with calcium versenate. Clinical and experimental study. Dia Medico. 1961; 33:2292-2294 (Oct. 5). (2239)

42. Cotter LH. Treatment of lead poisoning by chelation. JAMA. 1954; 155:906-908. (CA52:10388a)

43. Choie DD, Copley MP, Gindhart TD. Mitigation of intestinal cytotoxicity of cisplatin by EDTA in rats. Cancer Lett. 1983; 19(2):195-198. (CA)

44. Cohn SH. The effect of chemical agents on the skeletal content and excretion of internally deposited fission products. US Atomic Energy Comm. ANL-5584. 1956; 144-149. (CA51:4557f)

45. Flanagan PR, Chamberlain MJ, Valberg LS. The relationship between iron and lead absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982; 36(5):823-9. (CA)

46. Forbes RM. Excretory patterns and bone deposition of zinc, calcium, and magnesium in the rat as influenced by zinc deficiency, EDTA, and lactose. J Nutr. 1961; 74:194-200. (CA59:7921b)

47. Davidson L, Almgren A, Hurrell RF. Sodium iron EDTA (NaFe(III) EDTA) as a food fortificant does not influence absorption and urinary excretion of manganese in healthy adults. J Nutr. 1998; 128(7): 1139-1143. (CA)

48. Desoille H, Albahary C, Truhaut R, Boudene C. The lead mobilization test using CaNa2EDTA. XII Intern Cong Occup Health. Helsinki, Finland. 1957; Vol. 111, Proceedings, pp. 287-290. (1773)

49. Davies NM, Jamali F. Pharmacological protection of NSAID-induced intestinal permeability in the rat: effect of tempo and metronidazole as potential free radical scavengers. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1997; 16(7):345-349. (CA)

50. Kalz F, Quastel J II, Telner P, Schafer A, MacIntyre W. Changes in the electrophoretic patterns of the serums of psoriatics under various forms of therapy. J Invest Dermatol. 1958; 31:161-166. (CA53:20529a)

51. Kehoe RA. Misuse of edathamil calcium-disodium for prophylaxis of lead poisoning. J Amer Med Assoc. 1955; 157:341-342 (Jan. 22). (1582)

52. Mariani B, Bisetti A, Romeo V. Blood-cholesterol-lowering action of the sodium salt of calciumethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Gazs Intern Med Chir. 1957; 62:1812-1823. (CA51:16953c) [Two g. daily of the drug, in 2 intravenous administrations, or (with a lower effect) by mouth or rectum, caused in humans a decrease of blood cholesterol, especially of its free fraction.]

53. Stankovic M, Petrovic LJ, Poleti D (Inst. Public Health, Belgrade, Serbia). A contribution to the laboratory diagnostics of early saturnism. Arhiv za Higijenu Rada 1 Toksikologiju. 1962; 13:189-194. (2480)

54. Srbova J, Telsinger J (Clinic Occup. Dis., Prague). Absorption of calcium disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid after oral administration in the treatment of lead poisoning. Archiv fur Gewerbepatholgie und Gewerbehygiene 15. 1957; 6:572-580. (1858)

55. Suenaka T, Kosaka H, Miyama K, Tabuchi T, Hirata M, Hara I, Masumoto D, Akaboshi S (Osaka Prefect Inst. Public Health, Osaka). The effects of repeated oral administration of calcium-EDTA on patients with chronic lead poisoning. Osaka-furitsu Koshu Eisei Kenkyusho Kenkyu Hokoku, Rodo Eisei Hen. 1979; 17:1-9. (CA)

56. Suenaka T, Miyajima K, Kosaka H, Tbuchi T, Hara I. Urinary excretion of heavy metals following oral administration of calcium EDTA. Osaka furitsu Koshu Eisei Kenkyusho Kenkyu Hokoku, Rodo Eisei Hen. 1976; 14:19-23. (CA)

57. Swenerton H, Hurley L S (Dept. Nutr. Univ. Calif., Davis, Calif.). Teratogenic effects of a chelating agent and their prevention by zinc. Science. 1971; 173 (3991), 62-64 (Eng). (CA75)

58. Telsinger J, Srbova J. Effect of D-penicillinamine on the urinary excretion of mercury and lead. Pracovni Lekarstvi 16. 1964; 10:433-435. (2827) [Seven patients with chronic Pb poisoning were treated with daily oral doses of 150 mg D-penicillinamine for 4-7 days. Urinary excretion of Pb increased about 4-fold which is practically as much as after administration of 0.5-g tablets of CaEDTA, 4 times/day. If future studies confirm its lower toxicity in long-term administration, D-penicillinamine may replace EDTA.]

59. Tripod J. General pharmacodynamic aspects of mobilizing iron with chelators. Atti Acad Med Lombarda, Suppl 20. 1965; 2025-2027. (CA67)

60. Tufft LS, Nockels CF. The effects of stress, escherichia coli, dietary ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid, and their interaction of tissue trace elements in chicks. Poult. Sci. 1991; 70(12):2439-2449. (CA)

61. Tolot F, Jaquis GM, Soubrier R, Bresson JR. Lead mobilization in, and the &-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) content of the urine of lead-exposed subjects. Egesesegiudomany. 1966; 10(4):375-380. (CA66)

62. Tolot F, Jaquis GM, Soubrier R, Bresson JR. The use of chelating agents "per os" in the treatment of prophylaxis of lead poisoning. Proceedings of the Society of Ind Med at Lyon. 1962; 23:376-379 (June). (2484)

63. Perrault M. Truhaut R, Klotz B, Boudene C, Dreux C, Clavel B, Chain F. The effectiveness of CaEDTA, in occupational lead poisoning. Archiv des Maladies Professionelles de Medecine du Travail et de Securite Sociale. 1956; 17:423-429; discussion 470-472. (1702)

64. Mitchell Jr PH, Schroeder HA. Depression of cholesterol levels in human plasma following ethylenediamine tetracetate and hydralazine. J Chron Dis. 1955; 2:520-533. (CA54:18787i)

65. Prasad T, Chhabra A, Atreja PP. Effect of feeding chelating agent (EDTA) on trace mineral balances in goats. Indian J Dairy Sci. 1994; 47(3):219-221. (CA)

66. Rodriguez A. Substances that potentiate the absorption of vitamin B12 administered orally. Anales Inst. Farmacol. Espan. 1961; 9-10, 57-61. (CA61:2373a)

67. Rotta C, Parigi A. Prevention of lead intoxication by oral administration of calcium versenate. Med del Lavoro. 1961; 52:769-779 (Dec.). (2325)

68. Saita G, Moreo L. Lead and porphyrins in the bile of patients with lead poisoning treated with calcium versenate. Med del Lavoro. 1958; 49:376-384 (May). (1956)

69. Scadding G, Bjarnason I, Brostoff J, Levi AJ, Peters TJ. Intestinal permeability to 51CR-labelled ethylenediaminetetraacetate in food-intolerant subjects. Digestion. 1989; 42(2):104-109. (NA59)

70. Sidbury Jr JB. Lead poisoning, treatment with disodium calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetate. Am J Med. 1955; 18:932-946 (June). (1622)

71. Bersworth Chemical Co. The versenes for exacting chemical control of cations in solution. Technical Bulletin No. 2, 4th ed. 1952; 102 pp. (1313)

72. Berti T. Pharmacological investigation on sodium bismuth ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Bi-EDTA). Arch Ital. Sci. Farmacol. 1956; 6:293-298. (CA51:9939h)

73. British Industrial Biological Research Association. The metabolism of EDTA. Food and Cosmetics Toxicol. 1964; 2:741-745 (Dec.). (2670)

74. Gervais MJ. The medical prevention of lead poisoning in an electrolytic zinc factory. Montpellier Medical. 1962; 61:12-27 (Jan.). (2401)

75. Jugo S, Maljkovic T, Kostial K. Influence of chelating agents on the gastrointestinal absorption of lead. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1975; 34(2):259-263. (CA)

76. Teisinger J, Zumanova R, Zezula I. Effect of calcium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on the binding of lead by erythrocytes and blood proteins. Pracovni lekufstvi. 1957; 9:277-280. (CA52:9447g)

77. Stancev S. Prophylaxis of chronic lead poisoning by oral administration of CaNa2EDTA. First National Congress of Industrial Health. Abstracts of papers. 1963; 37-38. (2634)

78. Taucin EJ, Svilane ABV. Effect of EDTA and chlortetracycline on assimilation of trace elements by chickens. Fiziologiceski aktivnye komponenty pitanija zivotnyh. 1969; 163-170 Russian. (NA41)

79. Suenaka T, Miyajima K, Kosaka H, Tabuchi T, Hara I. Urinary excretion of heavy metals following oral administration of calcium-EDTA. Osaka-furitsu Koshu Eisei Kenkyusho Kenkyu Hokoku, Rodo Eisei Hen. 1977; 15:27-31. (CA) [Ca EDTA, administered to workers dealing with Pb, significantly increased Pb and Zn excretion in urine. There was a high correlation between urinary total metal and Zn concns.]

80. Nishino S. Effect of oral administration of calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate in lead poisoning. Kokumin Eisel. 1957; 26:90-95. (1834)

81. Nottbohm L. The supervisory physician in plants presenting lead hazards. Medizinische Welt. 1963; 44:224-228. (2596)

82. Pagnotto LD, Elkins HB, Bayka I. Oral administration of edathamil calcium disodium (calcium disodium versenate). AMA Archives of Ind. Health. 1958; 17:29-33 (Jan.). (P1943)

83. Parigi A, Rasetti L. Action of orally administered CaEDTA on the metabolism of the porphyrinic precursors in lead poisoning. Lavoro e Medicina 16. 1962; 3:44-50. (2452)

84. Peters HA, Eichman PL, Price JM, Kozelka FL, Reese HH. Abnormal copper and trytophan metabolism and chelation therapy in anticonvulsant drug intolerance. Diseases Nervous System. 1966; 27(2):97-107. (CA64:16509c)

85. Petrovic LJ, Stankovic M, Savicevic M, Poleti D. Our experiences with calcium disodium edathamil. Proc. 13th Int. Congr. on Occup. Health July 25-29, 1960. 1961; pp 338-341. (2176)

86. Pilat L, Moscovici B, Iorga M. CaNa2EDTA treatment in mercury intoxication. Proc. 13th Int. Congr. Occup. Health, 1960. 1961; p. 341-343.

87. Prevot PA, Sulotto F, Poli G, Parigi A. Environmental lead pollution and the principal biological indexes for evaluating the risk of lead poisoning. Lav. Um. 1969; 21(5):200-209. (CA72)

88. Reinl W. Prophylaxis of lead workers with orally administered Ca2EDTA. Zentralblatt fur Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz. 1956; 6:5-8 (Jan.). (1709)

89. Reinl W. Modern therapy of lead intoxication. Regensburger Jahrbuch fur Hrztliche Fortbildung. 1959/60; 8:(8 pp). (2184)

90. Roxburgh RC, Haas L. The diagnostic importance of glycosuria in lead poisoning in childhood. Arch Dis in Childhood. 1959; 34:70-73 (Feb.). (2957)

91. Selander S. Treatment of lead poisoning. A comparison between the effects of sodium calcium-edetate and penicillamine administered orally and intravenously. Brit J Indust Med. 1967; 24:272-281.

92. Bell RF, Gilliland JC, Boland JR, Sullivan BR. Effect of oral edathamil calcium-disodium on urinary and fecal lead excretion. Comparative excretory studies with intravenous therapy. AMA Arch Ind Health. 1956; 13:366-371 (Apr.). (1642)

93. Bersworth FC, Rubin M. Prophylactic calcium chelate compositions for heavy metal poisoning. U.S. Patent. 1959; 1,875,129 (Feb. 24), to Dow Chemical Co. From Chemical Abstracts 53:10672. (1982)

94. Bersworth FC, Rubin M. Organo-metallic detoxicants. U.S. Patent. 1955; 2,698,823 (Jan. 4) to F.C. Bersworth. From Chemical Abstracts 49:Abst. No. 4244. (1552)

95. Bjarnason I, Peters TJ, Veall N. A persistent defect in intestinal permeability in coeliac disease demonstrated by 51Cr-labelled EDTA absorption test. Lancet. 1983; 1:323-325.

96. Blomquist L, Bark T, Hedenborg G, Norman A. Evaluation of lactulose/mannitol and 51Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/14C-mannitol methods for intestinal permeability. Scand. J Gastro. 1997; 32(6):805-812. (BA 104)

97. Blumer W, Reich T. Leaded gasoline - A cause of cancer. Environment Int. 1980; 3:465-471.

98. Blumer W. Calcium-disodium-EDTA treatment for cardiovascular symptoms. Plzen Lek Sborn Suppl. 1990; 62:157-159.

99. Cann HM, Verhulst HL. Edathamil calcium-sodium (EDTA) in lead poisoning. Tennessee Ind. Hygiene News 15. 1958; 1:3-4. (2936)

100. Cho SS, Mejia L, Morel L, Samuel-Fernando P. Cooked cereal ingredient-containing products fortified with EDTA/iron compositions and methods for use. PCT Int. Appl. WO 99 05,920, 1999, US Appl. 54,428 1997, 24 pp. (CA)

101. Cowan TKJ, Phillips GD, Bragg DB. Effect of dietary EDTA on the ability of chicks to tolerate sodium chloride in the water. Canadian J Animal Sci. 1971; 51(3):633-637. (NA42)

102. Engstroem B, Norin H, Jawait M, Ingman F. Influence of different cadmium-EDTA complexes on distribution and toxicity of cadmium in mice after oral or parenteral administration. Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 1980; 46(3):219-234. (CA)

103. Gehres RF, Raymond S. A new chemical approach to the solution of urinary calculi. J Urol. 1951; 65:474-483. (CA47:8241c)

104. Greig JB. Sodium iron ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). WHO Food Addit. Serv. 2000; 44:105-111 (Safety Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants). (CA) A review with 9 refs. on toxicity of NaFeEDTA, including acute and short-term toxicity, genotoxicity, developmental toxicity and food and nutritional toxicity.

105. Harishima S, Tsuchiya K, Kondo H, Motouchi M, Sakaguchi T, Mori A. Therapy and prevention of lead poisoning with calcium versenate. Keio J. Med. 7. 1958; 93-105. (1914)

106. Hathcock JN, Hill CH, Matrone G. Vanadium toxicity and distribution in chicks and rats. J. Nutr. 1964; 82(1):106-110. (CA60:12576g)

107. Hurrell RF, Ribas S, Davidsson L. NaFe3+EDTA as a food fortificant: influence on zinc, calcium and copper metabolism in the rat. British J Nutr. 1994; 71(1):85-93. (NA64)

108. Kojima S, Kiyozumi M, Matsumoto S, Yamamoto M, Nakamura C, Niho K. Studies on poisonous metals. III. Effects of chelating agents on gastrointestinal absorption, distribution, and excretion of cadmium chloride in rats. Eisei Kagaku. 1977; 23(1):43-47. (CA)

109. Krari N, Allain P. Effects of three chelating agents, EDTA, NTA, and TPP, on the concentration of elements in rat tissues. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 1991; 29(2):125-131. (CA)

110. Makashev KK. Effect of calcium and disodium salts of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on lead absorption, accumulation, and excretion from the system after lead intoxication. Trudy Inst Kraevol Patologil, Akademiya Nauk Kazakhskoi SSR. 1962; 10:180-189. (1008)

111. Madsen JL, Scharff O, Rabol A, Krogsgaard OW. Relationship between small-intestinal transit rate and intestinal absorption of 14C-labelled mannitol and 51Cr-labelled ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid in healthy subjects. Scand. J Gastro. 1996; 31(3):254-259. (NA66)

112. MacPhail AP, Bothwell TH, Torrance JD, Derman DP, Bezwoda WR, Charlton RW, Mayet F. Factors affecting the absorption of iron from Fe(III)EDTA. British J Nutr. 1981; 45(2):25-227. (NA52)

113. Merville R, Dequidt J, Fontaine G. Ambulatory treatment of occupational lead poisoning by calcium disodium edetic acid. Lille Med. 4. 1959; 5:291-293. (2035)

114. Stankovic M, Petrovic LJ, Poleti D. Application of Ca2EDTA (dicalcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetate) for the diagnosis of lead poisoning. Acta Pharm. Jugoslav. 1960; 10:155-159. (2202) The compound was administered orally to 24 printers, 18 persons with severe Pb poisoning, and 8 controls with no Pb exposure. The upper limit of Pb excretion in urine after 3 g CaEDTA was 0.340 mg/24 hr.

115. Suso FA, Edwards Jr HM. Influence of various chelating agents on absorption of cobalt-60, iron-59, manganese-54, and zinc-65 by chickens. Poultry Sci. 1968; 47(5):1417-1425. (CA70)

116. Vozar L. The action of complexon 3 on the copper balance and level in the organism after oral administration. J'harmazie. 1959; 14:459-466. (CA54:7892d)

117. Nielsen FH, Sunde ML, Hockstra WG. Effect of some dietary synthetic and natural chelating agents on the zinc-deficiency syndrome in the chick. J Nutr. 1966; 89(1):35-42. (CA65:14176h)

118. Pedinelli M, Stringari M. Observations on the treatment "per os" with chelating agents in tetraethyl lead production workers. Rassegna di Medicina Industriale. 1959; 28:514-525 (Nov.-Dec.) (2048)

119. Preda N, Niculescu T, Rafaila E. The treatment of lead intoxication with chelating agents. Igiena (Bucharest)13. 1964; 3:233-242. (2784) Treatment of Pb-poisoned patients in the Clinic for Occupational Diseases, Bucharest, with iv injections of 2 g CaNa2EDTA/day for 2-20 days markedly increased urinary excretion of Pb. Oral doses of 4-6 g EDTA/day were less effective.

120. Sapeika N. Actions of lead ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) complex. Arch. Intern. Pharmacodynamie. 1955; 101:488-494. (CA49:14168e)

121. Savicevic M, Petrovic LJ. New views on the treatment of occupational lead poisoning. Vojnosanitetski Pregled. 1964; 21:173-177. (2804)

122. Svicevic M, Petrovic L, Stankovic M, Djordjevic S. Experiences with CaNa2EDTA (mosatil bayer) in chronic Pb exposure. Zentralblatt fur Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz. 1959; 9:6-12 (Jan.) (2062)

123. Rubin M. Design of chelates for therapeutic objectives. Fed. Proceed. 20, Suppl. 10. 1961; 2:149-157 (Sept.) (2327)

124. Rosenman RH, Smith MK. The effect of certain chelating substances, salts of ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA), upon cholesterol metabolism in the rat. J Clin. Invest. 1956; 35:11-19. (CA50:6676b)

125. Roldan M, Suarez CL, Perdomo GM, Camarero SC, Escobar CH. Study of intestinal permeability in celiac disease with 51 Cr-EDTA. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam. 1994; 24:37-40.

126. Proescher F. Anti-coagulant properties of ethylene bisiminodiacetic acid. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 1951; 76:619-620.

127. Pommier SA, Lapierre H, de Passille AM, Gariepy C. Control of the bioavailability of iron in heavy veal production by different feeding management systems: use of Ca-EDTA as an iron chelating agent. Can. J Anim. Sci. 1995; 75(1):37-44. (CA)

128. Aamoth HL, Butt FJ. Maintaining food quality with chelating agents. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1960; 88:526-531. (CA55:12687e) Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and its di- or tetra-Na salts alleviate a wide variety of problems caused by trace-metal ions in food products.

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199. Zarembski PM, Hodgkinson A. Factors influencing the urinary excretion of oxalic acid in man. Clin. Chim. Acta. 1969; 25(1):1-10. (CA71)

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218. Anon. Avoid "chelation therapy" pills. FDA Consumer. Sept. 1985:19(7):34.

219. Anon. Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate: permitted addition to certain foods. Federal Register. 1960; 25:7316. (CA54:25345b)

220. Anon. Black-eye peas, potatoes: order listing disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA as optional ingredients. Federal Register, cf. CA 61, 12544d. Nov. 1964; 29:14984-14985. (CA62: 3316c)

221. Anon. The complexities of EDTA. Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 1972; 10:697-700.

222. Anon. Disodium EDTA (Disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate). Federal Register, cf. CA 57, 12964d. Nov. 1962; 27:11257. (CA58:3821f) [The previous regulation under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act is extended to permit the use of a max. of 100 p.p.m. of the title compd. as a color preservative in frozen white potatoes.]

223. Anon. Dressings for foods. Food additives. Calcium disodium ethylenediamine-tetraacetate, disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate; order affecting nomenclature and listing as optional ingredients of mayonnaise, french dressing, and salad dressing. Oleomargarine; order amending identity standard to permit calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate as optional preservative ingredient. Federal Register cf. CA 55, 14742f; 58, 3821f, 59, 14495d. Feb. 12, 1964; 29:2382-2384. (CA60:13801c)

224. Anon. Food additives. Boiler water additives. Federal Register, cf. CA 58, 10661b. Oct. 16, 1964; 29:14224. (16697c) [Tetrasodium EDTA may be used under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act as a boiler water additive in the prepn. of steam that will contact food.]

225. Anon. Food additives. Adhesives. Federal Register, CF. ca 59, 13261c. Dec. 31, 1963; 28:14493. (CA60:6131a) [The previous regulation under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act is revised to permit the use of ferric salts of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in food-packaging adhesives.]

226. Anon. Food additives. Calcium disodium EDTA. Federal Register, cf. CA 62, 3316c. May 21, 1965; 30:6915-6916. (CA63:6236e) [The previous regulation under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act was revised to provide for the use of a max. of 310 ppm. of Ca di-Na EDTA as a color stabilizer in canned, cooked, and dried lima beans.]

227. Anon. Food additives. Calcium disodium EDTA. Federal Register, cf. CA 55. August 29, 1961; 26:8072. (CA55:23853h) [One hundred p.p.m. of the title compd. may be used under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act in pecan pie fillings to prevent discoloration.]

228. Anon. Food additives. Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate. Federal Register, cf. CA 55, 4811c. Apr. 4, 1961; 26:2780. (CA55:10737c) [The previous regulations under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act are revised to permit 275 p.p.m. of the title compd. (calcd. as anhyd. compd.) in or on cooked, canned crabmeat and 250 p.p.m. in or on cooked, canned shrimp to retard struvite formation and to promote color retention.]

229. Anon. Food additives. Calcium disodium EDTA. Federal Register, cf. CA 66:94047h. May 2, 1967; 32:6686. (CA67) [The title compd. may be used under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act at a max. level of 200 ppm. to stabilize the color of canned mushrooms.]

230. Anon. food additives. Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate. Federal Register, cf. CA 55, 10737c. July 13, 1961; 26:6271-6272. (CA55:20243a)

231. Anon. Food additives. Chelating agents. Federal Register, cf. CA 55, 20246a. Jan. 12, 1962; 27:339. (CA56:7755e) [Di-Na ethylenediaminetetraacetate is included under the Fed. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act as a chelating agent in the list of substances that may be used in the manuf. of paper and paperboard that contacts food.]

232. Anon. Food additives. Calcium disodium EDTA (calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate; calcium disodium (ethylenedinitrilo)tetraacetate). Federal Register, cf. CA 58, 3822b. Sept. 25, 1963; 28:10377-10378. (CA59:14495e) [The title compd. may be used as a stabilizer of the color of canned clams under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act at a max. level of 340 p.p.m.]

233. Anon. Food additives. Disodium EDTA. Federal Register, cf. CA 62, 3316c. Nov. 25, 1964; 29:15814. (CA62:7027h) [A max. of 500 ppm. di-Na EDTA may be used under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act in canned strawberry pie filling to promote color retention.]

234. Anon. Food additives. Disodium EDTA (Disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate). Federal Register, cf. CA 56, 12040a. Aug. 23, 1962; 27:8424. (CA57:12964d) [A max. of 165 p.p.m. di-Na EDTA may be used under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act as a preservative in canned kidney beans.]

235. Anon. Food additives. Disodium EDTA. Federal Register, cf. CA 60, 13801c. Aug. 28, 1964; 29:12364-12365. (CA61:12544d) [The previous regulation under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act is revised to permit the use of di-Na EDTA to promote color retention in dried banana products (315 p.p.m. max.) used as a component of cereal products and in canned cooked chickpeas (165 p.p.m. max.).]

236. Anon. Food additives. Disodium EDTA. Federal Register. June 18, 1965; 30:7895. (CA63:6238b) [Disodium EDTA, min. 99% dihydrate, may be used under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act as a max. level of 240 ppm. to solubilize trace minerals in aq. solns. which are added to ruminant feeds.]

237. Anon. Food additives. Disodium EDTA. Federal Register, cf. CA 71:100539s. Jun 10, 1970;35(112):8930-8931. (CA73) [Di-Na EDTA may be used under the U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act in gefilte fish balls or patties in the packaging medium at a max. level of 50 ppm (total wt. of fish and medium) to inhibit discoloration.]

238. Anon. Food additives. Disodium EDTA. Federal Register, cf. CA 67:2133c. Aug 14, 1969; 34(155):13153-13154. (CA71) [The title compd. may be used under the U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act in cooked sausage at a max. level of 36 ppm. as a cure accelerator with Na ascorbate or ascorbic acid.]

239. Anon. Food additives. Disodium EDTA. Federal Register, cf. CA 62:7027h. April 25, 1967; 32:6393. (CA67) [Di-Na EDTA may be used under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act as a sequestrant with nonnutritive sweeteners designed for use in aq. soln. at a max. level, calcd. as anhyd. Ca di-Na EDTA, of 0.1% of the wt. of the dry nonnutritive sweetener.]

240. Anon. Food additives. Disodium EDTA. Federal Register, cf. CA 63:6238b. Nov 6, 1968; 33(217):16272. (CA70) [The previous regulation under the US Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act is revised to permit the use of di-Na EDTA as a solubilizer for trace minerals in aq. solns. in all animal feeds instead of ruminant feeds.]

241. Anon. Food additives. Disodium EDTA (disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate). Federal Register, cf. CA 55, 20243a. Jan. 31, 1962; 27:883. (CA56:12040a) [A tolerance of 150 p.p.m. of the title compd. is established under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act for use with Fe salts as a stabilizer for vitamin B?? in aq. multivitamin prepns.]

242. Anon. The metabolism of EDTA. Fd. Cosmet. Toxicol. 1964; 2:741-745.

243. Appel MJ, Kuper CF, Wouteren RA (Dept of General Toxicology, TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Zeist, Neth.). 352654b Disposition, accumulation and toxicity of iron fed as iron (II) sulfate or as sodium iron EDTA in rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2001; 39(3):261-269. (CA)

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246. Ballot DE, MacPhail AP, Bothwell TH, Gillooly M, Mayet FG. Fortification of curry powder with NaFe(111) EDTA in an iron-deficient population: initial survey of iron status. Am. J Clin. Nutr. 1989; 49:156-161.

247. Ballot DE, MacPhail AP, Bothwell TH, Gillooly M, Mayet FG. Fortification of curry powder with NaFe(111) EDTA in an iron-deficient population: report of a controlled iron-fortification trial. Am. J Clin. Nutr. 1989; 49:162-169.

248. Bauer RO, Rullo FR, Spooner C, Woodman E. Acute and subacute toxicity of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) salts. Fed. Proc. 1952; 11:321.

249. Bautista ZP (Harper Hosp., Detroit, Mich.). Lead poisoning. A review and report of seven cases. Harper Hosp. Bulletin. 1963; 21:43-55 (Mar.-Apr.). (3016)

250. Belyaev YA. Effect of oral administration of some chelating agents on the excretion of plutonium in rats. Raspredelenic, Biol. Deistvie, Uskorenic Vyvedeniya Radioaklivn. Izotopov, Sb. Rabol. 1964; 338-342. (CA62:16608a)

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